Above: Bran Castle, also known as Dracula's Castle in Bran, Romania

Even more than the nefarious dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, the world’s best-known Romanian is Count Dracula, the fictional main character of Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel, one of the most famous horror stories of all time. Many visitors to Romania arrive with a fascination for all things Dracula. But sorting myth from reality can be a little complicated. Stoker modeled Dracula on a real-life Wallachian prince named Vlad Basarab II, who lived from 1431 to 1476 and who was also known in Romanian as Vlad Tepes, or Vlad the Impaler. He won this hair-raising nickname in wars against the Turkish armies that threatened Wallachia, a principality that is now part of Romania, and subsequently as a ruler with a propensity for shocking cruelty and violence.

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