Above: The dining room with a view into the kitchen of Osteria San Francesco in Matera, Italy

Although the name of the region changed from Lucania to Basilicata many centuries ago, the area’s food is still referred to as “Lucanian.” Basilicata is widely considered to have the best bread in Italy, because it is made with flour produced from local heirloom grain. The province also produces excellent olive oil, cheeses — caciocavallo Podolico made from the milk of Podolica cattle is the star — and pastas, including orecchiette (dome-shaped pasta resembling little ears), trofie (short, thin, twisted pasta), lagane (wide, thick noodles), tripoline (ribbon pasta) and strascinati (larger orecchiette). Sun-dried red peppers grown near Senise and known as cruschi are a regular condiment. Aside from excellent beef from the Podolica cattle, the region also produces lamb, rabbit and a variety of game, including wild boar.

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Above: The dining room with a view into the kitchen of Osteria San Francesco in Matera, Italy

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